Java Networking is a concept of connecting two or more computing devices together so that we can share resources.
Java socket programming provides facility to share data between different computing devices.
The widely used java networking terminologies are given below:
IP address is a unique number assigned to a node of a network e.g. 192.168.0.1 . It is composed of octets that range from 0 to 255.
It is a logical address that can be changed.
A protocol is a set of rules basically that is followed for communication. For example:
The port number is used to uniquely identify different applications. It acts as a communication endpoint between applications.
The port number is associated with the IP address for communication between two applications.
MAC (Media Access Control) Address is a unique identifier of NIC (Network Interface Controller). A network node can have multiple NIC but each with unique MAC.
In connection-oriented protocol, acknowledgement is sent by the receiver. So it is reliable but slow. The example of connection-oriented protocol is TCP.
But, in connection-less protocol, acknowledgement is not sent by the receiver. So it is not reliable but fast. The example of connection-less protocol is UDP.
A socket is an endpoint between two way communication.
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The java.net package provides many classes to deal with networking applications in Java. A list of these classes is given below: