PHP Data Types

PHP data types are used to hold different types of data or values. PHP supports 8 primitive data types that can be categorized further in 3 types:

  1. Scalar Types (predefined)
  2. Compound Types (user-defined)
  3. Special Types

PHP Data Types: Scalar Types

It holds only single value. There are 4 scalar data types in PHP.

  1. boolean
  2. integer
  3. float
  4. string

PHP Data Types: Compound Types

It can hold multiple values. There are 2 compound data types in PHP.

  1. array
  2. object

PHP Data Types: Special Types

There are 2 special data types in PHP.

  1. resource
  2. NULL

PHP Boolean

Booleans are the simplest data type works like switch. It holds only two values: TRUE (1) or FALSE (0). It is often used with conditional statements. If the condition is correct, it returns TRUE otherwise FALSE.

Example:

snippet
<?php 
    if (TRUE)
	    echo "This condition is TRUE.";
    if (FALSE)
	    echo "This condition is FALSE.";
?>

Output:

Output
This condition is TRUE.

PHP Integer

Integer means numeric data with a negative or positive sign. It holds only whole numbers, i.e., numbers without fractional part or decimal points.

Rules for integer:

  • An integer can be either positive or negative.
  • An integer must not contain decimal point.
  • Integer can be decimal (base 10), octal (base 8), or hexadecimal (base 16).
  • The range of an integer must be lie between 2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647 i.e., -2^31 to 2^31.

Example:

snippet
<?php 
    $dec1 = 34;
    $oct1 = 0243;
    $hexa1 = 0x45;
    echo "Decimal number: " .$dec1. "</br>";
    echo "Octal number: " .$oct1. "</br>";
    echo "HexaDecimal number: " .$hexa1. "</br>";
?>

Output:

Output
Decimal number: 34 Octal number: 163 HexaDecimal number: 69

PHP Float

A floating-point number is a number with a decimal point. Unlike integer, it can hold numbers with a fractional or decimal point, including a negative or positive sign.

Example:

snippet
<?php 
    $n1 = 19.34;
    $n2 = 54.472;
    $sum = $n1 + $n2;
    echo "Addition of floating numbers: " .$sum;
?>

Output:

Output
Addition of floating numbers: 73.812

PHP String

A string is a non-numeric data type. It holds letters or any alphabets, numbers, and even special characters.

String values must be enclosed either within single quotes or in double quotes. But both are treated differently. To clarify this, see the example below:

Example:

snippet
<?php 
    $company = "Javatpoint";
    //both single and double quote statements will treat different
    echo "Hello $company";
    echo "</br>";
    echo 'Hello $company';
?>

Output:

Output
Hello Javatpoint Hello $company

PHP Array

An array is a compound data type. It can store multiple values of same data type in a single variable.

Example:

snippet
<?php 
    $bikes = array ("Royal Enfield", "Yamaha", "KTM");
    var_dump($bikes);	//the var_dump() function returns the datatype and values
    echo "</br>";
    echo "Array Element1: $bikes[0] </br>";
    echo "Array Element2: $bikes[1] </br>";
    echo "Array Element3: $bikes[2] </br>";
?>

Output:

Output
array(3) { [0]=> string(13) "Royal Enfield" [1]=> string(6) "Yamaha" [2]=> string(3) "KTM" } Array Element1: Royal Enfield Array Element2: Yamaha Array Element3: KTM

You will learn more about array in later chapters of this tutorial.

PHP object

Objects are the instances of user-defined classes that can store both values and functions. They must be explicitly declared.

Example:

snippet
<?php 
     class bike {
          function model() {
               $model_name = "Royal Enfield";
               echo "Bike Model: " .$model_name;
             }
     }
     $obj = new bike();
     $obj -> model();
?>

Output:

Output
Bike Model: Royal Enfield

This is an advanced topic of PHP, which we will discuss later in detail.

PHP Resource

Resources are not the exact data type in PHP. Basically, these are used to store some function calls or references to external PHP resources. For example - a database call. It is an external resource.

This is an advanced topic of PHP, so we will discuss it later in detail with examples.

PHP Null

Null is a special data type that has only one value: NULL. There is a convention of writing it in capital letters as it is case sensitive.

The special type of data type NULL defined a variable with no value.

Example:

snippet
<?php 
    $nl = NULL;
    echo $nl;	//it will not give any output
?>

Output:

Output
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