What is C?
C is a structural or procedural oriented programming language which is machine-independent and extensively used in various applications.
C is the basic programming language that can be used to develop from the operating systems (like Windows) to complex programs like Oracle database, Git, Python interpreter, and many more. C programming language can be called a god's programming language as it forms the base for other programming languages. If we know the C language, then we can easily learn other programming languages. C language was developed by the great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Laboratories. It contains some additional features that make it unique from other programming languages.
What is C++?
C++ is a special-purpose programming language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs circa 1980. C++ language is very similar to C language, and it is so compatible with C that it can run 99% of C programs without changing any source of code though C++ is an object-oriented programming language, so it is safer and well-structured programming language than C.
Let's understand the differences between C and C++.
The following are the differences between C and C++:
C is a structural programming language, and it does not support classes and objects, while C++ is an object-oriented programming language that supports the concept of classes and objects.
- Type of programming language
C supports the structural programming language where the code is checked line by line, while C++ is an object-oriented programming language that supports the concept of classes and objects.
- Developer of the language
Dennis Ritchie developed C language at Bell Laboratories while Bjarne Stroustrup developed the C++ language at Bell Labs circa 1980.
C++ is a superset of C programming language. C++ can run 99% of C code but C language cannot run C++ code.
- Type of approach
C follows the top-down approach, while C++ follows the bottom-up approach. The top-down approach breaks the main modules into tasks; these tasks are broken into sub-tasks, and so on. The bottom-down approach develops the lower level modules first and then the next level modules.
In C, the data can be easily manipulated by the outsiders as it does not support the encapsulation and information hiding while C++ is a very secure language, i.e., no outsiders can manipulate its data as it supports both encapsulation and data hiding. In C language, functions and data are the free entities, and in C++ language, all the functions and data are encapsulated in the form of objects.
- Function Overloading
Function overloading is a feature that allows you to have more than one function with the same name but varies in the parameters. C does not support the function overloading, while C++ supports the function overloading.
- Function Overriding
Function overriding is a feature that provides the specific implementation to the function, which is already defined in the base class. C does not support the function overriding, while C++ supports the function overriding.
- Reference variables
C does not support the reference variables, while C++ supports the reference variables.
C contains 32 keywords, and C++ supports 52 keywords.
- Namespace feature
A namespace is a feature that groups the entities like classes, objects, and functions under some specific name. C does not contain the namespace feature, while C++ supports the namespace feature that avoids the name collisions.
- Exception handling
C does not provide direct support to the exception handling; it needs to use functions that support exception handling. C++ provides direct support to exception handling by using a try-catch block.
- Input/Output functions
In C, scanf and printf functions are used for input and output operations, respectively, while in C++, cin and cout are used for input and output operations, respectively.
- Memory allocation and de-allocation
C supports calloc() and malloc() functions for the memory allocation, and free() function for the memory de-allocation. C++ supports a new operator for the memory allocation and delete operator for the memory de-allocation.
Inheritance is a feature that allows the child class to reuse the properties of the parent class. C language does not support the inheritance while C++ supports the inheritance.
- Header file
C program uses <stdio.h> header file while C++ program uses <iostream.h> header file.
Let's summarize the above differences in a tabular form.
|C follows the procedural style programming.
|C++ is multi-paradigm. It supports both procedural and object oriented.
|Data is less secured in C.
|In C++, you can use modifiers for class members to make it inaccessible for outside users.
|C follows the top-down approach.
|C++ follows the bottom-up approach.
|C does not support function overloading.
|C++ supports function overloading.
|In C, you can't use functions in structure.
|In C++, you can use functions in structure.
|C does not support reference variables.
|C++ supports reference variables.
|In C, scanf() and printf() are mainly used for input/output.
|C++ mainly uses stream cin and cout to perform input and output operations.
|Operator overloading is not possible in C.
|Operator overloading is possible in C++.
|C programs are divided into procedures and modules
|C++ programs are divided into functions and classes.
|C does not provide the feature of namespace.
|C++ supports the feature of namespace.
|Exception handling is not easy in C. It has to perform using other functions.
|C++ provides exception handling using Try and Catch block.
|C does not support the inheritance.
|C++ supports inheritance.