C

C

The bitwise operators are the operators used to perform the operations on the data at the bit-level. When we perform the bitwise operations, then it is also known as bit-level programming. It consists of two digits, either 0 or 1. It is mainly used in numerical computations to make the calculations faster.

We have different types of bitwise operators in the C programming language. The following is the list of the bitwise operators:

Operator | Meaning of operator |
---|---|

& | Bitwise AND operator |

| | Bitwise OR operator |

^ | Bitwise exclusive OR operator |

~ | One's complement operator (unary operator) |

<< | Left shift operator |

>> | Right shift operator |

**Let's look at the truth table of the bitwise operators.**

X | Y | X&Y | X|Y | X^Y |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |

Bitwise AND operator is denoted by the single ampersand sign (&). Two integer operands are written on both sides of the (&) operator. If the corresponding bits of both the operands are 1, then the output of the bitwise AND operation is 1; otherwise, the output would be 0.

For example,

snippet

We have two variables a and b. a =6; b=4; The binary representation of the above two variables are given below: a = 0110 b = 0100 When we apply the bitwise AND operation in the above two variables, i.e., a&b, the output would be: Result = 0100

As we can observe from the above result that bits of both the variables are compared one by one. If the bit of both the variables is 1 then the output would be 1, otherwise 0.

Let's understand the bitwise AND operator through the program.

snippet

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=6, b=14; // variable declarations printf("The output of the Bitwise AND operator a&b is %d",a&b); return 0; }

In the above code, we have created two variables, i.e., 'a' and 'b'. The values of 'a' and 'b' are 6 and 14 respectively. The binary value of 'a' and 'b' are 0110 and 1110, respectively. When we apply the AND operator between these two variables,

**a AND b = 0110 && 1110 = 0110**

**Output**

The bitwise OR operator is represented by a single vertical sign (|). Two integer operands are written on both sides of the (|) symbol. If the bit value of any of the operand is 1, then the output would be 1, otherwise 0.

For example,

snippet

We consider two variables, a = 23; b = 10; The binary representation of the above two variables would be: a = 0001 0111 b = 0000 1010 When we apply the bitwise OR operator in the above two variables, i.e., a|b , then the output would be: Result = 0001 1111

As we can observe from the above result that the bits of both the operands are compared one by one; if the value of either bit is 1, then the output would be 1 otherwise 0.

**Let's understand the bitwise OR operator through a program.**

snippet

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=23,b=10; // variable declarations printf("The output of the Bitwise OR operator a|b is %d",a|b); return 0; }

**Output**

Bitwise exclusive OR operator is denoted by (^) symbol. Two operands are written on both sides of the exclusive OR operator. If the corresponding bit of any of the operand is 1 then the output would be 1, otherwise 0.

For example,

snippet

We consider two variables a and b, a = 12; b = 10; The binary representation of the above two variables would be: a = 0000 1100 b = 0000 1010 When we apply the bitwise exclusive OR operator in the above two variables (a^b), then the result would be: Result = 0000 1110

As we can observe from the above result that the bits of both the operands are compared one by one; if the corresponding bit value of any of the operand is 1, then the output would be 1 otherwise 0.

**Let's understand the bitwise exclusive OR operator through a program.**

snippet

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=12,b=10; // variable declarations printf("The output of the Bitwise exclusive OR operator a^b is %d",a^b); return 0; }

**Output**

The bitwise complement operator is also known as one's complement operator. It is represented by the symbol tilde (~). It takes only one operand or variable and performs complement operation on an operand. When we apply the complement operation on any bits, then 0 becomes 1 and 1 becomes 0.

For example,

snippet

If we have a variable named 'a', a = 8; The binary representation of the above variable is given below: a = 1000 When we apply the bitwise complement operator to the operand, then the output would be: Result = 0111

As we can observe from the above result that if the bit is 1, then it gets changed to 0 else 1.

**Let's understand the complement operator through a program.**

snippet

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=8; // variable declarations printf("The output of the Bitwise complement operator ~a is %d",~a); return 0; }

**Output**

Two types of bitwise shift operators exist in C programming. The bitwise shift operators will shift the bits either on the left-side or right-side. Therefore, we can say that the bitwise shift operator is divided into two categories:

- Left-shift operator
- Right-shift operator

**Left-shift operator**

It is an operator that shifts the number of bits to the left-side.

**Syntax of the left-shift operator is given below:**

snippet

Operand << n

**Where, **

**Operand is an integer expression on which we apply the left-shift operation.**

**n is the number of bits to be shifted.**

In the case of Left-shift operator, 'n' bits will be shifted on the left-side. The 'n' bits on the left side will be popped out, and 'n' bits on the right-side are filled with 0.

**For example,**

snippet

Suppose we have a statement: int a = 5; The binary representation of 'a' is given below: a = 0101 If we want to left-shift the above representation by 2, then the statement would be: a << 2; 0101<<2 = 00010100

**Let's understand through a program.**

snippet

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=5; // variable initialization printf("The value of a<<2 is : %d ", a<<2); return 0; }

**Output**

**Right-shift operator**

It is an operator that shifts the number of bits to the right side.

**Syntax of the right-shift operator is given below:**

snippet

Operand >> n;

**Where,**

Operand is an integer expression on which we apply the right-shift operation.

N is the number of bits to be shifted.

In the case of the right-shift operator, 'n' bits will be shifted on the right-side. The 'n' bits on the right-side will be popped out, and 'n' bits on the left-side are filled with 0.

**For example, **

snippet

Suppose we have a statement, int a = 7; The binary representation of the above variable would be: a = 0111 If we want to right-shift the above representation by 2, then the statement would be: a>>2; 0000 0111 >> 2 = 0000 0001

**Let's understand through a program.**

snippet

#include <stdio.h> int main() { int a=7; // variable initialization printf("The value of a>>2 is : %d ", a>>2); return 0; }

**Output**

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