ES6 Loops

Looping statements in the programming languages help to execute the set of instructions/functions repeatedly while a condition evaluates to true. Loops are an ideal way to perform the execution of certain conditions repeatedly. In a loop, the repetition is termed as iteration.

You can see the classification of loops in the following figure:

ES6 Loops

Let us try to understand the loops in the above image.

Definite Loops

A definite loop has a definite/fixed number of iterations. In ES6, there are three types of definite loops that are listed below:

Definite Loop Description
for( ; ; ) Loop It executes the block of code for a definite number of times.
for…in Loop It iterates through the properties of the object.
for…of loop Unlike object literals, it iterates the iterables (arrays, string, etc.).

Let us try to elaborate on the above loops.

The for ( ; ; ) loop

The for ( ; ; ) loop is used to iterate a part of the program multiple times. If you have a fixed number of iterations, then it is always recommended to use 'for' loop.

Syntax

snippet
for(initialization;condition;incr/decr){  
//statement or code to be executed  
}

The 'for' loop includes some parts that are defined as follows:

  • Initialization: It is the initial condition that is executed once at the starting of the loop. In this part, we initialize the variable, or it can also be used for the already initialized variable. It is an optional statement.
  • Condition: It is executed each time for testing the condition of the loop. It continues the execution of the loop until the condition is false. It returns only Boolean values that are either true or false. It is also an optional statement.
  • Increment/Decrement: It can increment or decrement the value of the variable, and it is also an optional statement.
  • Statement: It represents the body of the loop, which is executed every time until the conditional expression is false.

Flowchart

ES6 Loops

Example

In the following, there are three examples of 'for' loop in which we are showing the simple 'for' loop, 'for' loop having multiple expressions and infinite 'for' loop.

  • The table of 2 by using for loop.
snippet
var i;
for(i=1;i<=10;i++)
{
   console.log("2 x "+ i +" =", 2*i);
}

Output

Output
2 x 1 = 2 2 x 2 = 4 2 x 3 = 6 2 x 4 = 8 2 x 5 = 10 2 x 6 = 12 2 x 7 = 14 2 x 8 = 16 2 x 9 = 18 2 x 10 = 20
  • for loop having multiple expressions
    You can combine the multiple assignments and final expressions in a single for loop by using the comma (, ) operator.
    Let us try to print the Fibonacci series by using the single for loop.
snippet
"use strict" 
for(let temp, a = 0, b = 1; b<40; temp = a, a = b, b = a + temp) 
console.log(b);

Output

Output
1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34
  • Infinite for loop
    The example of infinite for loop is given as follows:
snippet
for(;;)
{  
   console.log("infinitive loop");  // It will print infinite times
}

Output

Output
infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop infinite loop . . . . infinite loop

For terminating it, you can use ctrl + c.

The for…in loop

The for…in loop is similar to for loop, which iterates through the properties of an object, i.e., when you require to visit the properties or keys of the object, then you can use for…in loop. It is a better choice when you are working with objects or dictionaries where the order of index is not essential.

Syntax

snippet
for (variable_name in object_name) //Here in is the keyword
{  
  // statement or block to execute  
}

In every iteration, one property from the object is assigned to the name of the variable, and this loop continues till all of the object properties get covered.

Example

snippet
function Mobile(model_no){
this.Model = model_no;
this.Color = 'White';
this.RAM = '4GB';
}
var Samsung = new Mobile("Galaxy");
for(var props in Samsung)
{
console.log(props+ " : " +Samsung[props]);
}

Output

Output
Model : Galaxy Color : White RAM : 4GB

If you pass the function in the properties of the object then this loop will give you the complete function in the output. You can it's illustration in the following code:

snippet
function Mobile(model_no){
this.Model = model_no;
this.Color = 'White';
this.RAM = '4GB';
this.Price = function price() // The loop will give you this function as it is written here.
{
   console.log(this.model + "Price = Rs. 3300");
}
}
var Samsung = new Mobile("Galaxy");
for(var props in Samsung)
{
   console.log(props+ " : " +Samsung[props]);
}

Output

Output
Model : Galaxy Color : White RAM : 4GB Price : function price() { console.log(this.model + "Price = Rs. 3300"); }

So, you can also visit the methods by using the for…in loop.

The for…of loop

Unlike the object literals, this loop is used to iterate the iterables (arrays, string, etc.).

Syntax

snippet
for(variable_name of object_name) // Here of is a keyword
{  
   //statement or block to execute  
}

In every iteration, one property from the iterables gets assigned to the variable_name, and the loop continues till the end of the iteration.

Example

snippet
var fruits = ['Apple', 'Banana', 'Mango', 'Orange'];
for(let value of fruits)
{
  console.log(value); 
}

/*
You can also write the above code like:

for(let value of ['Apple', 'Banana', 'Mango', 'Orange'])
{
  console.log(value); 
}

*/

Output

Output
Apple Banana Mango Orange

Indefinite Loops

An indefinite loop has infinite iterations. It is used when the number of iterations within the loop is intermediate or unknown.

There are two types of indefinite loops that are listed below:

Indefinite Loops Description
while Loop It executes the instructions each time till the defined condition evaluates to true.
do…while Loop It is similar to the while loop, but the key difference is that the do…while loop executes the loop at once irrespective of the terminator condition.

Let us try to elaborate on the above loops.

The while loop

A while loop is a control flow statement that allows the repeated execution of code based on the given Boolean condition. It consists of a block of code and an expression/condition.

The while loop checks the expression/condition before the execution of block; that's why this control structure is often known as a pre-test loop.

Syntax

snippet
while (condition) {
   statements;
}

Flowchart

ES6 Loops

Example

snippet
var y = 0;
while (y < 4) {
    console.log(y);
    y++;
}

Output

Output
0 1 2 3

Points to remember

  • The condition is always required in the while loop because it is necessary to run the loop. If the condition returns true, then the loop will start over again, but if it returns false, the loop will stop.
  • If the condition will always true, then the loop will never end.

The do…while loop

It is a control flow statement that executes a block of code at least once, and then it will depend upon the condition whether or not the loop executes the block repeatedly.

The do…while loop checks the condition after the execution of the block, that's why this control structure is also known as the post-test loop. It is also possible that the condition always evaluates to true, which will create an infinite loop.

Syntax

snippet
do 
{  
  // block of statements to be executed;  
} 
while (expression);

Flowchart

ES6 Loops

Example

snippet
var count = 6, fact = 1;
do {
    fact = fact * count--;
} while (count > 0);

console.log(fact);

Output

Output
720

If you perform this example by using the while loop, then this will be written as:

snippet
var count = 6, fact = 1;
while (count > 0) 
{
    fact = fact * count--;
}
console.log(fact);

Output

Output
720

The key difference between the above two examples is that the while loop is entered only if the condition passed to it will evaluate to true. But the do…while loop executes the statement once, it happens because of the starting iteration of the do…while loop does not consider as the Boolean expression. Then for the further iterations, the while will check the condition and takes the control out from the loop.

The Loop control statements

The loop control statements are used for interrupting or control the flow of the execution. These statements change the execution from its normal sequence. JavaScript provides you the full control to handle the loops and switch statements.

There may be some circumstances when you require to come out from the loop without reaching its bottom. There may also be some situations when you need to skip the part of the code and start the further iterations of the loop. So, for handling such situations in JavaScript, we have a break and continue statements.

Loop control statements Description
The break statement The break statement is used to bring the control of the program out from the loop.
The continue statement It skips the subsequent statements of the current iteration and brings control of the program to the beginning of the loop.

Let us try to elaborate on the above control statements.

The break statement

It is used to take control of the program out from the loop. You can use the break statements within the loops or in the switch statements. Using a break statement within the loop causes the program to exit from the loop.

Syntax

snippet
break;

Example

snippet
var n = 1;
while(n<=7) 
{ 
   console.log("n="+n); 
   if(n==4)
   {
       break;
   } 
   n++;
}

The above code will print the four values of n for the range of numbers within 1 to 7.

When the value of n is 4, then the loop forces the control to exit the loop because of the break statement. You will get the following output after the successful execution of the above code.

Output

Output
n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4

The continue statement

Unlike the break statement, the continue statement does not exit from the loop. It terminates the current iteration of the loop and starts the next iteration.

Syntax

snippet
continue;

Example

snippet
var n = 0;
while(n<=5) 
{ 
   n++;
   if(n==3)
   {
       continue;
   } 
   console.log("n = "+n); 
}

The above example will display the values of n, but it will skip the current iteration if the value of n will be 3. You will get the following output after the successful execution of the above code.

Output

Output
n = 1 n = 2 n = 4 n = 5 n = 6

Use of Labels for controlling the flow

A label is nothing but an identifier followed by a colon (:), and it applied on a block of code or a statement. You can use the label with a break and continue to control the flow.

You cannot use the line breaks in between the break and continue statement and its label name. Also, there should not be any statement in between the label name and an associated loop.

The syntax for defining the label

snippet
labelname:
Statement

labelname: Any identifier of JavaScript, which is not a reserved word.

Statement: It is a JavaScript statement.

Note
Note: In strict mode, you cannot use "let" as the label name. It will cause a syntax error because let is a reserved identifier.
Label Description
Label with the break statement It is used to exit from the loop or from the switch statement without using a label reference, but with label reference, it is used to jump out from any code block.
Label with continue statement It is used to skip one iteration of the loop with or without using the label reference.

Label with the break statement

Without using the label reference, you can use the break only to exit from the loop or from the switch, but by using the label reference, you can use the break to jump out from any code block.

Syntax

snippet
break labelname;

Example

snippet
var x, y;

loop1: 	       //The first for statement is labeled as "loop1."

for (x = 1; x < 4; x++) { 
     loop2:    //The second for statement is labelled as "loop2"
   for (y = 1; y < 4; y++) {  
      if (x === 2 && y === 2) {
         break loop1;
      }
      console.log('x = ' + x + ', y = ' + y);
   }
}

Output

Output
x = 1, y = 1 x = 1, y = 2 x = 1, y = 3 x = 2, y = 1

Label with continue statement

The continue statement can only be used for skipping one loop iteration either with the label reference or without using the label reference.

Syntax

snippet
continue labelname;

Example

snippet
var x, y;

loop1:   //The first for statement is labelled as "loop1"
for (x = 1; x < 4; x++) {     
   loop2:  //The second for statement is labelled as "loop2"
   for (y = 1; y < 4; y++) {   
      if (x === 2 && y === 2) {
         continue loop1;
      }
      console.log('x = ' + x + ', y = ' + y);
   }
}

You can notice in the following output of the above code that it skips both "x = 2, y = 2" and "x = 2, y = 3".

Output

Output
x = 1, y = 1 x = 1, y = 2 x = 1, y = 3 x = 2, y = 1 x = 3, y = 1 x = 3, y = 2 x = 3, y = 3

Labeled function declarations

Before ECMAScript 6, the LabeledStatement specification didn't allow for the association of a label statement with a FunctionDeclaration. However, the labeled FunctionDeclaration was the allowable extension in non-strict code, and most of the browser-hosted implementations of ECMAScript supported that extension.

But in ECMAScript 2015 (ES6), the grammar productions for the LabeledStatement allow the use of FunctionDeclaration as a LabeledItem, but it includes an error rule that causes a syntax error if that occurs.

For the web browser compatibility, that rule is modified with the addition of underlined text:

LabeledItem : FunctionDeclaration

It will cause a syntax error if any of the source code of strict mode matches this rule.

Starting with ECMAScript 2015, the labelled function declarations standardized for non-strict code:

snippet
L: function hello() {}

If you write the above code in strict mode then this will throw a syntax error:

snippet
'use strict';
L: function hello() {}
// SyntaxError: In strict mode code, functions can only be declared at top level or inside a block.

The Generator Functions can neither be labeled in non-strict mode nor in strict mode.

snippet
L: function* hello() 
{
}
// SyntaxError: Generator Functions cannot be labelled
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